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17 May 2013

AES2

Chennai is home to some of the biggest and longest serving automakers in the country, with over 30 % automobile manufacturers and 35 % auto components manufacturers. The city will offer a business networking platform for the global and Indian auto components sector through the 7th Automotive Engineering Show in June 2013 (www.aes-show.com).

Amid volatile market conditions, the show will provide manufacturers with cost-effective solutions for the auto sector. The show will be organised by the Mumbai-based Focussed Events from 6 to 8 June, 2013 at the Chennai Trade Centre.

The show is supported by premium government bodies like National Automotive Testing and R&D Infrastructure Project (NATRiP), Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI) & International Centre for Automotive Technology (iCAT).

AES

The show will help vehicle and auto component manufacturers to deploy appropriate technology and connect to providers of systems and processes in an effort to optimise efficiency, quality and costs. The event is largely targeted at mid-level functional executives and managers, who are responsible for the quality and quantity of production, especially those who look after or source materials, IT solutions in design, machines, tools, production efficiency, etc.

The expo will chart the course for future modernisation, cost-cutting and efficiency and hence has seen a record number of pre-event visitor registrations. The show is thus expected to attract over 8,000 high profile visitors from the auto industry not only from in and around Chennai but also from other automotive hubs like Bangalore, Coimbatore, Madurai, Pune and the National Capital Region.

imamura_testimonial

The trade fair has participation from over 150 leading manufacturers from India and abroad displaying world class automotive technologies and products like IT solutions in design, development, planning and manufacturing, automation systems, factory control and sensors, assembly line system integrators and line builders, machining centres and metal cutting equipment, including laser cutting. In addition, the display will include latest concepts in tools, jigs and fixtures for enhancing productivity, specialised solutions in welding including laser welding, end-to-end in plant (material) handling systems, automotive painting equipment, paint shop integrators, robotics and metrology, quality inspection and vision system.

A unique feature about the present edition is the pavilion earmarked for Tier II & Tier III vendors offering components sourcing and manufacturing solutions. This would enable access to home-grown economical products and technologies to the business visitors, who largely comprise of OEMs and Tier I purchasing/ procurement managers/ directors, plant heads, and production personnel from planning, quality, design, capital purchase, procurement, maintenance, R&D etc.

mmsingh_testimonial

The event will also conduct exhibitor seminars that would help the participants to expand the reach of their products/services among prospective customers.

Like every year, the show will also include the presentation of ‘Excellence Awards for Innovation & Creative Automation’ rewarding pioneers in the fields of flexible manufacturing, process improvement, energy efficiency & safety and environment. For further information and registration, please log on to www.aes-show.com or write to sales@fe-india.com.

(Auto Tech Review is a media partner of the AES Show, and this article is purely for promotional purpose)

19 March 2012


Infotainment in the automotive industry has been witnessing a growing trend of late. And with more modern features adorning our cars today, the share of infotainment is only likely to grow. In an email interview with Auto Tech Review, Praveen K Ganapathy, Director – Business Development, Texas Instruments (TI) India shares his view on the industry, and its future. Excerpts:

ATR _ At what size does your company estimate the automotive infotainment market to be in India?

PKG _ According to ISA Frost & Sullivan report, the total available market in India for automotive electronics is estimated at $ 160 million in 2012, driven by safety and digitisation. Texas Instruments (TI) has an unparalleled range of products and solution catering to the Indian market. This combines leading automotive infotainment processors, wireless connectivity solutions, analogue solutions to enable feature-rich automotive applications such as automotive infotainment head units, rear-seat entertainment devices, radio, and navigation tools.

How many automotive electronics/ applications does an average car feature?

With each year cars seem to get more and more complicated. In today’s world, cars tend to have more than 50 microprocessors on them. Although these microprocessors increase the complexity and testing of electronic subsystems getting integrated into today’s cars, they actually make it easier and safer to drive and service. 

With increasing levels of semiconductor integration and cost reduction, the features can be brought into mid level and entry level vehicles. Is Texas Instruments carrying out any production stage or development for such units in India?With increasing levels of semiconductor integration and cost reduction, the infotainment and safety features on yesterday’s high-end cars can be brought into mid and entry level vehicles. TI is working aggressively on high level of integration and cost reduction on its processors and analogue components for the automotive market. The production and development of infotainment sub-systems is the domain of TI’s customers, which include Tier 1 suppliers into the automotive OEMs. TI’s large network of sales and applications folks is enabling the adoption of these technologies and products at these customers in and outside India.

What are the opportunities for Texas Instruments in the Indian Automotive sector?

Texas Instruments offer a strong product portfolio and design tools to support the growing market of automotive infotainment. Customers of TI have access to a few key advantages that are unique to TI. These advantages help customers come up with cutting-edge applications and get to market faster. TI has a broad portfolio of products that cover all design requirements of customers. Also, TI is the only semiconductor company in India to have sales and applications offices across locations, including small cities like Nashik and Chandigarh. TI also has an efficient partner/ distributor channel eco-system in place to reach out to customers across the country.Applications-wise, the key focus markets for TI in India include:

Automotive (power supplies, infotainment systems, clusters, safety/ driver assistance systems, etc)

o Industrial (UPS, inverters, metering applications, etc)o Consumer (audio, TVs, PCs, mobile phones, etc)

o Power/ Energy (renewable energy, solar power, energy harvesting)

o Wireless (wireless base stations, mobile phones esp. smart phones & PDAs)

What are the future emerging trends you see in the automotive infotainment sector, both in India and other emerging markets?

Traditionally, automotive ‘radios’ have been limited to the dual functions of a radio receiver and an audio player. Consumers today are demanding a smart phone like experience in terms of features and user interface from the vehicle’s centre console head-unit. The key functions of the head-unit are radio reception, audio playback, telephony, connectivity and navigation. Along with this, consumers expect to bring the living room experience into the rear seat.

Another trend is that digital radio transmission standards are being deployed across the world, enabling new categories of services. This includes satellite radio (XM/Sirius in USA) and terrestrial radio (HD Radio in USA, DAB in Europe, DMB in South Korea and China, and soon to be deployed DRM in India). New services include conditional access, traffic information, programme associated data and program guide. Special techniques have been employed for backward compatibility to make it easier for customers to migrate – DAB transmitters often simulcast audio services on FM, and HD Radio has a hybrid mode where the analogue and digital signals co-exist on a band.Digital audio has enabled a multitude of storage media options starting with the audio compact disc.  During the initial days of compact discs, tapes were still the most reliable music source in automobiles due to insensitivity to vehicle motion. With the advent of electronic shock protection, compact discs and other optical storage formats replaced tapes.

The preferred media types today are SD Cards and USB Flash Drives – these remove the need for any moving electronic parts, further improving reliability. In addition, audio can be sourced from an external media player connected over USB, using an AUX cable, or over Bluetooth. Finally, with internet connectivity, Internet radio services such a Pandora can be used to stream audio into the head-unit.Car connectivity enables communication between the infotainment system and in-car user devices, as well as remote communication. Remote connectivity is enabled in high-end vehicles with an inbuilt 2G/ 3G SIM card to communicate over the cellular network. New technologies are being developed that will allow smart phones to be controlled from the vehicle’s in-built user interface.  Mechanisms need to be defined that will allow smart phone “apps” to be used in moving vehicles without compromising driver safety.With this expanding set of features that need to be controlled by the driver and other co-passengers, the user interface is an important focus area.

The trend in consumer electronics is towards highly responsive, touch screen enabled graphical user interfaces, and the same is expected in the vehicle. This requires an advanced level of 2D and 3D graphics performance. In order to minimise the distraction to the driver, buttons and knobs need to be conveniently placed on the steering wheel or on the centre console.Further, gesture recognition, speech synthesis and voice recognition technologies have to be uniquely adapted for the automotive environment. These technologies require significant digital signal processing, and are active areas of research. There are also innovations in display technologies for automobiles. Dual-view displays will allow the driver to view the radio HMI, while the front-seat co-passenger watches a movie. Heads-up displays will allow the driver to interact with the system without taking their eyes off the road.

Safety is a key aspect of automotive design, and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are an independent set of systems that may interact with the infotainment unit. Some of the features that may be provided by the infotainment unit include back-up camera and surround-view. Back up cameras are used to avoid collision with pedestrians or other objects while reversing the vehicle. Surround view systems help with parking by simulating a top-view of the vehicle and its surroundings using multiple camera feeds from around the vehicle.Automotive navigation is another key feature being added to infotainment systems. These systems rely on GPS to acquire position data, and employ dead reckoning using local sensors for greater reliability. The map data is stored locally either limited to terrain information or with detailed information on three-dimensional objects such as buildings. Correspondingly, rendering can be in 2D/ 2.5D (top-vie/perspective view) or in 3D. Also, map rendering involves blending multiple layers of graphics (e.g. map layer, map overview layer, points-of-interest layer, route layer, HMI layer, etc) – this needs to be efficiently handled.

Other features of automotive navigation include overlaying of traffic information, and navigation prompts providing turn-by-turn directions.Finally, there are the infotainment features that are targeted at the passengers. These have been available in aftermarket systems for some time. More recently, OEMs have been providing consumers the choice of a Rear Seat Entertainment (RSE) system. These functions may also be available on the head-unit, but are enabled only when the vehicle is parked (this may change with the availability of dual-view displays). These systems today allow users to bring in multimedia content in multiple forms such as SD Card, USB Drive or DVD/ BluRay Discs. In addition, the content may be sourced from portable devices (e.g. iPhone or iPad), mobile television or other Internet enabled services (e.g. YouTube).  

Internet connectivity will also enable general web browsing. Other functions such as gaming and video conferencing will further enhance the living room experience. In addition, these systems can include mobile office features such as e-mail integration. All-in-all, there are an enormous range of features that can be enabled by these complex systems at various price points for consumers.Texas Instruments has a broad and deep product portfolio across consumer and automotive electronics, enabling customers to implement the breadth of features described above. With this portfolio, Texas Instruments is able to bring scalable embedded processing platforms for automotive infotainment, from the entry level automotive optimised processors (Jacinto), to the leading edge multi-core applications processor derived from smart phone devices (OMAP).  

The enabling technologies include high performance Digital Signal Processing (DSP) cores, graphics acceleration using Imagination Technologies’ SGX GPU, advanced video acceleration IPs, leading edge Cortex cores from ARM, and a rich peripheral set adapted to automotive use cases. The programmable cores in these platforms are common, and software is reusable across the scale. This helps in maximising return on customers’ software investment, and minimising their time-to-market.

What specific challenges do you see in respect to the Indian market?

India is one the largest manufactures and consumers in the world of automobiles. With the growing environmental concerns, most of the manufacturers are now focused on building vehicles that are energy efficient and safer with advanced infotainment and driver assistance systems. However, local manufacturing of complex electronic sub-systems in a cost effective manner is still a big challenge. We hope this trend will change as the local ecosystems for electronics manufacturing develops and scales, both in terms of quality and cost.

14 February 2012

Our February issue briefly talked about a few technologies displayed by the Anand Group. Within that story (Suppliers & Misc section) we asked you to visit our website for more details about the wide range of technologies displayed by Anand Group. As promised here’s a look at those technologies. Since Anand Group has Joint-Ventures and technical collaborations with various companies we will talk about products from their partners one by one.

Gabriel India Ltd

1) Load Adaptive Damping (LAD) for SUVs: Within this system the rear shock absorber is connected to the engine vacuum source through a vacuum actuator mounted on the shock absorber. Through a dashboard-mounted switch the driver can select the damping modes – soft/hard drive and comfort/sport cruise. The damping force applied is dependent on the load being carried by the vehicle.

2) All Disc Type Valving: Conventional shock absorbers use spring loaded valves, which tend to lose their firmness over a period of time resulting in lower performance. In order to overcome this disadvantage Gabriel introduced All Disc-Type Valving or Flapper Valves, wherein metallic discs replace the springs. These metallic discs bend with the pressure differentia between surfaces enabling oil to flow through the openings.

3) Tubular Piston Rods: Traditionally, the McPherson struts have been using solid rods, which on bad roads over a long period of time can lead to a failure. The Tubular Piston Rods offered by Gabriel offer enhanced reliability and over 30 % reduction in weight. This technology has been developed for front struts and is already being supplied to Volkswagen India.


Spicer India Ltd.

1) Off-Highway Wing Style Shafts: Spicer India launched Wing Style Shafts, which have been designed by Dana Europe for off-highway markets. In these shafts torque transfer takes place through a mechanical drive, more precisely through keys placed on the bearing blocks. These keys are matched with corresponding slots machined on the connecting fitting yokes.

Behr India Ltd.

1) Electronic Visco Clutch (EVC): EVC is a fan clutch drive directly controlled by the engine ECU. The control by ECU offers greater flexibility for fan speed controls and the operation take splace by controlling the amount of fluid released into the coupling. Benefits of the EVC include enhanced fuel-efficiency, better AC compressor reliability and lesser activations while idling.

2) Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Cooler: EGR is an important technology for meeting the Euro IV emission norms. It cools the exhaust gases through a cooling system and mixes it with fresh air to reduce the level of pollutants. This technology works well with existing diesel technology and in combination with other technologies even Euro V & VI emission norms can be met.

Mahle Filter Systems India

1) Air Intake System for Commercial Vehicle: The company showcased its recently launched ‘Pure Power’ series of air filters, which are claimed to offer high maintenance intervals owing to the filter material, which can cope with diverse environments. The filter is claimed to offer resistance against moisture and fine soot particle too.

2) Fuel Filter Module: Mahle fuel filters use a high-separation filter media along with an advanced functionality scope. This allows for the fuel pressure in the petrol filter to be adjusted by a pressure regulator integrated in the fuel-filter. The filter modules can be used for petrol and diesel applications with varying levels of technology usage. These filters feature higher particle holding and separation and can almost completely remove emulsified water too. 

3) Plastic Air Intake Manifold: MAHLE showcased its newly-developed fully plastic intake manifolds. When coupled with intermediate flanges and tumble flaps on a direct-injection gasoline engine, the tumble flow provides for a better optimised fuel-air mixture and combustion process. This directly translates into higher fuel and emissions efficiency.

4) Plastic Oil Filter Module: Plastic oil filter modules are increasingly being favoured in the manufacturing process due to many other reasons than its lightness. In comparison with metallic oil modules, which requires drilling and flanges to be machined plastic injection moulding produces one complete module. The oil plan module includes the filtration and cooling functions, thereby reducing the number of individual parts required and bringing down logistics cost.

Haldex India Limited

1) Integrated Lift Axle System – Mechanical Suspension (ILAS-MS): This is a new introduction to the ILAS family for heavy commercial vehicles. The system does away with the traditional combination of six valves used for lifting the axle, translating into a claimed direct benefit cost of 40 % and indirect benefit of 15 % along with light-weighting advantages.

08 February 2017
Bosch Powertrain Solutions Division 1
 
Bosch has announced it will be setting up an operating unit specifically for electromobility, which will be part of its new Powertrain Solutions division. This is in line with the company estimating that nearly 20 million hybrids and electric vehicles will be produced in 2025, and that electromobility is an area of future importance. From the beginning of 2018, the Powertrain Solutions division, with 88,000 associates, will include the company’s electromobility activities as well as its present Gasoline Systems and Diesel Systems divisions, Bosch said. This is expected to make Bosch supply existing and new customers with all powertrain technologies from a single source in the future
 
Bosch said that in addition to expanding electromobility, it will work intensively on further improving combustion-engine technology. In addition to the 20 million new hybrids and electric vehicles on the world’s roads in 2025, there will be some 85 million new gasoline and diesel-powered vehicles, it noted. The company is said to be investing several billion euros on further improving powertrain solutions, with investments of 400 million euros annually in electromobility alone. Most of the investment in electromobility has gone into battery research and development.
 
Bosch Powertrain Solutions Division 2
 
The Powertrain Solutions division will focus on three core segments - passenger cars and trucks with combustion engines and hybrid powertrains, and electric vehicles. Bosch said that this involves wide-ranging challenges. While the company sees huge growth potential in electromobility and commercial vehicles, the main focus on passenger cars with combustion engines will be on improving efficiency. Technical innovations will be needed for all powertrain solutions, as only companies with products that further reduce fuel consumption and emissions will remain competitive over the long term, Bosch noted.
 
Bosch will develop all these technologies in parallel, since this is the only way it will be able to react quickly and flexibly to changes in the market, across all areas relating to powertrain. Powertrain Solutions will bring together roughly 88,000 associates at more than 60 locations in 25 countries around the world.
 
Dr Rolf Bulander, Chairman, Bosch Mobility Solutions business sector and Member, board of management, Robert Bosch GmbH, said the company is strategically prepared for the shift to electric driving. As it is still unclear which powertrain or combination of powertrains will dominate when, Bosch is taking a two-pronged approach by continuing to extend expertise and knowledge in electromobility and combustion engines, he added. Dr Bulander noted that in future, the Powertrain Solutions division will offer a wide-ranging portfolio of technologies that will make travel more efficient, economical, and eco-friendly for people.
12 October 2016
DSC 5365edited
 
With close to 300,000 units of the Monster having been sold since its launch in 1993, there have been many iterations of the bike over the last two decades. Currently, the Monster family comprises two models – the Monster 821 and its bigger sibling, the Monster 1200. Here, we take a look at the suite of technologies underlying the Monster 821, which also make it an excellent sportsbike.
 
Launched way back in 1993, the very first Ducati Monster was the machine that kick-started the ‘streetfighter’ segment in Europe, which has now become very popular. Designed by Argentinian industrial designer Miguel Galluzzi – currently the head of Piaggio’s Advanced Design Center in California – the first Monster was powered by a 900 cc V-twin borrowed from the Ducati 900 Supersport, and had a steel-tube trellis frame that was based on the Ducati 851 superbike chassis.
 
POWERTRAIN 
 
When we speak of the Ducati Monster, it’s inevitable that we start with its legendary V-twin engine. In the case of the Monster 821, it’s powered by a Testastretta 90-degree V-twin, which produces 112 hp at 9,250 rpm and 89 Nm of torque at 7,750 rpm – certainly enough to provide superlative performance since the bike itself weighs a moderate 180 kg. It’s an advanced, refined engine that boasts 15,000 km service intervals and requires valve clearance adjustments once only every 30,000 km. For a high-performance V-twin, that’s quite remarkable and is something that Ducati has been able to accomplish after years of research and development.
 
The Monster 821’s liquid-cooled four-valves-per-cylinder Desmodromic V-twin, which is Euro III-compliant, uses an electronic fuel injection (EFI) system from Continental, 53 mm throttle bodies from Mikuni and full ride-by-wire (r-b-w) throttle management. The engine is also used as a fully stressed member of the chassis, with the cylinder heads being attached to the frame directly. The crankshaft rotates on shell main bearings that are lubricated with a new, more efficient oil pump, while the fuel injector has been positioned in a way that targets spray directly onto the intake valves, thereby helping with engine cooling as well as improving combustion efficiency.
 
To ensure proper cooling, Ducati has fitted the Monster 821 with a large, curved radiator with two electric fans, which together make sure that the bike’s performance-oriented fuel mapping works without a hitch. Valve overlap has been reduced from the typical 38-41 degrees that’s used by many sportsbike engines to just 11 degrees, which helps low- and mid-range performance, making it smoother and more refined, while reducing emissions at the same time.
 
The Monster 821’s engine is mated to a six-speed gearbox, with a cable-operated slipper clutch. While the transmission itself is slick in operation, the clutch provides a light feel at the lever – a blessing in heavy traffic – and prevents the rear wheel from ‘hopping’ during hard braking and downshifting for corners. 
 
The way all of this works can be explained in two parts. The first part involves the clutch’s progressive self-servo mechanism, which presses the clutch plates together when getting drive from the engine, thereby reducing the clutch spring rates and lending a light feel at the lever. The other part is when the drive force is reversed (on the over-run), when the same self-servo mechanism reduces the pressure on the clutch plates, enabling them to provide the ‘slipper’ action, eliminating wheel hop under aggressive down-shifting at relatively higher speeds, which sportsbike riders often do while cornering. 
 
While the engine and transmission work their magic, the Monster 821’s exhaust system also quietly does its thing, ensuring uniform, consistent power delivery along with controlled emissions. The bike’s engine management system works with a lambda probe to each exhaust header, which provides smooth fuelling, while the catalytic converter hidden away inside the twin silencers provides Euro III conformity. An electronically controlled mid-section valve in the exhaust system also optimises exhaust pressures throughout the rev-range, making sure the bike runs smoothly throughout the engine’s rev-range.
 
pg54 atrOct16
 
ELECTRONICS SUITE
 
In addition to all the mechanical engineering that helps the Monster 821 push the performance envelope, there is a full suite of electronics controlling the hard-charging Italian engine and the magic words here are ‘riding modes,’ which control throttle response and the intervention levels of the bike’s safety electronics. The Monster 821 allows its rider to choose between urban, touring and sport modes, with urban mode reducing power output to 75 hp and providing relatively scaled-back power delivery and throttle response. Touring mode provides the full 112 hp but combines it with medium-level throttle response, while sport mode provides all-out performance that’s best suited to the aggressive, experienced sportsbike rider.
 
Beyond modulating power delivery and throttle response, riding modes also provide another very useful function – an easy way of adjusting the level of electronic intervention that’s offered by Ducati’s anti-lock brakes (ABS) and traction control system (DTC). The Monster has a 3-level ABS set-up and 8-level traction control, and choosing a setting that works best could possibly be, for some riders, a bit complicated. With riding modes, this becomes very easy. 
 
Sport mode is least restrictive, with high throttle response, level-1 ABS, reduced DTC action and no rear lift-up prevention under hard braking. Touring offers slightly scaled-back throttle response, level-2 ABS and higher levels of DTC intervention, while urban mode is best suited to newer, less experienced riders and/or when the bike is being ridden on wet, slippery tarmac, with level-3 ABS, reduced power and maximum intervention from the traction control system. With this customisable safety net, the Monster 821 lets the rider choose his own preferred level of electronic intervention according to his riding expertise and experience levels, as well as the road and weather conditions, thereby making the bike’s performance more easily accessible without compromising on safety.
 
DSC 5372edited
 
CHASSIS & SUSPENSION
 
Coming back to the bike’s mechanicals, the Monster 821’s steel-tube trellis-type chassis, which uses the engine as a fully stressed member, is a work of art. Using large-diameter triangulated steel tube sections, with an aluminium swing arm, the chassis is light and stiff, providing great high-speed stability and cornering prowess. With a wheelbase of 1,480 mm and 17-inch alloy wheels, the Monster 821 feels light and manoeuvrable at low speeds, which really helps when the bike is being ridden in heavy traffic. And yet, when the speeds go up and when the rider starts pushing the machine in corners, the Monster 821 remains exceptionally stable and sure-footed. In fact, it can be ridden like a full-on, hardcore sportsbike, allowing the rider to brake late and deep into corners, downshifting aggressively (the slipper clutch works beautifully here) and slamming the bike into the bends at high speeds without the bike ever asking you to back off. The Monster needs a firm, confident hand at its controls and appreciates a bit of aggression, responding beautifully to the rider’s inputs at higher speeds. Yes, it’s a ‘proper’ Italian sportsbike and prefers being ridden as such!
 
An important factor in the Monster 821’s handling is its high-tech adjustable suspension. The bike is fitted with non-adjustable 43 mm Kayaba USD forks up front, and a Sachs monoshock with progressive linkage at the rear, which is adjustable for preload and rebound damping. Sure, this package is not the last word in motorcycle suspension technology, but it still works quite. The front fork, which provides 130 mm of travel, feels moderately firm and doesn’t dive under hard braking. Yet, it’s also supple enough to handle the less-than-perfect tarmac that we have in India. At the same time, the rear monoshock lets the bike slice through high-speed corners, always keeping things tight and tidy.
 
While we speak of the bike’s handling, we must make mention of the ZR-rated Pirelli Diablo Rosso II tyres (180/60 at the rear, 120/70 at the front), which the Monster 821 comes fitted. These tyres use bi-compound construction in order to combine longevity with excellent full-lean grip. Here, the Pirelli tyres make a big contribution towards the beautiful handling, never running out of grip at extreme lean angles and boosting the rider’s confidence in a big way. Yes, you know that the bike’s traction control system will possibly save things even if the bike begins to slide – and that electronic safety net often encourages some riders to push even harder – the sheer brilliance of the Pirelli tyres still can’t be denied.
 
What goes hard must stop harder, which is where the Monster’s Brembo brakes come in. Equipped with the latest Bosch 9MP anti-lock system, the braking set-up includes twin 320 mm brake discs up front, with monobloc four-piston radial-mount callipers, and a single 245 mm disc at the back. Intervention level from the 3-level ABS depends on the riding mode chosen, with touring and urban modes also providing rear wheel lift mitigation, which can sometimes be useful during emergency braking. Riders also have the option of switching ABS off completely, though that is not advisable for the vast majority of riders on the street.
 
CONCLUSION
 
To conclude, we can only say that the Ducati Monster 821 is a refined and high-tech sportsbike that boasts a well-sorted mechanical package (engine, transmission, chassis and suspension), along with a brilliant suite of safety and performance enhancing electronics that actually work towards making more of the bike’s performance accessible to a wider cross-section of riders. Of course, you still need to be a skilled, experienced rider in order to be able to ride the Monster the way it’s designed to be ridden, but the electronics just make it easier and safer for the rider to do so. As an overall package, this Italian machine is very accomplished and second to none in its segment.
 
Text: Sameer Kumar
 
Photo: Bharat Bhushan Upadhyay


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